Vivekachudamani: The Crest-Jewel of Discrimination | 101-150
śrotrādidharmā na tu vetturātmanaḥ॥ 101॥
101. Blindness, weakness and sharpness are conditions of the eye, due to its fitness or defectiveness merely; so are deafness, dumbness, etc., of the ear and so forth – but never of the Ātman, the Knower.
prāṇādikarmāṇi vadanti tajñāḥ
prāṇasya dharmāvaśanāpipāse॥ 102॥
102. Inhalation and exhalation, yawning, sneezing, secretion, leaving this body, etc., are called by experts functions of Prāṇa and the rest, while hunger and thirst are characteristics of Prāṇa proper.
antaḥkaraṇameteṣu cakṣurādiṣu varṣmaṇi।
ahamityabhimānena tiṣṭhatyābhāsatejasā॥ 103॥
103. The inner organ (mind) has its seat in the organs such as the eye, as well as in the body, identifying with them and endued with a reflection of the Ātman.
ahaṁkāraḥ sa vijñeyaḥ kartā bhoktābhimānyayam।
sattvādiguṇayogena cāvasthātrayamaśnute॥ 104॥
104. Know that it is Egoism which, identifying itself with the body, becomes the doer or experiencer, and in conjunction with the Guṇas such as the Sattva, assumes the three different states.
viṣayāṇāmānukūlye sukhī duḥkhī viparyaye।
sukhaṁ duḥkhaṁ ca taddharmaḥ sadānandasya nātmanaḥ॥ 105॥
105. When sense-objects are favourable it becomes happy, and it becomes miserable when the case is contrary. So happiness and misery are characteristics of Egoism, and not of the ever-blissful Ātman.
ātmārthatvena hi preyānviṣayo na svataḥ priyaḥ।
svata eva hi sarveṣāmātmā priyatamo yataḥ
tata ātmā sadānando nāsya duḥkhaṁ kadācana॥ 106॥
106. Sense-objects are pleasurable only as dependent on the Ātman manifesting through them, and not independently, because the Ātman is by Its very nature the most beloved of all. Therefore the Ātman is ever blissful, and never suffers misery.
yatsuṣuptau nirviṣaya ātmānando'nubhūyate।
śrutiḥ pratyakṣamaitihyamanumānaṁ ca jāgrati॥ 107॥
107. That in profound sleep we experience the bliss of the Ātman independent of sense- objects, is clearly attested by the Śruti, direct perception, tradition and inference.
anādyavidyā triguṇātmikā parā।
kāryānumeyā sudhiyaiva māyā
yayā jagatsarvamidaṁ prasūyate॥ 108॥
108. Avidya (Nescience) or Māyā, called also the Undifferentiated, is the power of the Lord. She is without beginning, is made up of the three Guṇas and is superior to the effects (as their cause). She is to be inferred by one of clear intellect only from the effects She produces. It is She who brings forth this whole universe.
sāṅgāpyanaṅgā hyubhayātmikā no
109. She is neither existent nor non-existent nor partaking of both characters; neither same nor different nor both; neither composed of parts nor an indivisible whole nor both. She is most wonderful and cannot be described in words.
sarpabhramo rajjuvivekato yathā।
guṇāstadīyāḥ prathitaiḥ svakāryaiḥ॥ 110॥
110. Māyā can be destroyed by the realisation of the pure Brahman, the one without a second, just as the mistaken idea of a snake is removed by the discrimination of the rope. She has her Guṇas as Rajas, Tamas and Sattva, named after their respective functions.
vikṣepaśaktī rajasaḥ kriyātmikā
yataḥ pravṛttiḥ prasṛtā purāṇī।
rāgādayo'syāḥ prabhavanti nityaṁ
duḥkhādayo ye manaso vikārāḥ॥ 111॥
111. Rajas has its vikṣepa-Shakti or projecting power, which is of the nature of an activity, and from which this primeval flow of activity has emanated. From this also, mental modifications such as attachment and grief are continually produced.
kāmaḥ krodho lobhadambhādyasūyā
dharmā ete rājasāḥ pumpravṛttiḥ
yasmādeṣā tadrajo bandhahetuḥ॥ 112॥
112. Lust, anger, avarice, arrogance, spite, egoism, envy, jealousy, etc., -- these are the dire attributes of Rajas, from which the worldly tendency of man is produced. Therefore Rajas is a cause of bondage.
saiṣā nidānaṁ puruṣasya saṁsṛteḥ
vikṣepaśakteḥ pravaṇasya hetuḥ॥ 113॥
113. Āvṛiti or the veiling power is the power of Tamas, which makes things appear other than what they are. It is this that causes man’s repeated transmigrations, and starts the action of the projecting power (Vikṣepa).
prajñāvānapi paṇḍito'pi caturo'pyatyantasūkṣmātmadṛg
vyālīḍhastamasā na vetti bahudhā saṁbodhito'pi sphuṭam।
bhrāntyāropitameva sādhu kalayatyālambate tadguṇān
hantāsau prabalā durantatamasaḥ śaktirmahatyāvṛtiḥ॥ 114॥
114. Even wise and learned men and men who are clever and adepts in the vision of the exceedingly subtle Ātman, are overpowered by Tamas and do not understand the Ātman, even though clearly explained in various ways. What is simply superimposed by delusion, they consider as true, and attach themselves to its effects. Alas! How powerful is the great Āvṛiti Shakti of dreadful Tamas!
abhāvanā vā viparītabhāvanā
saṁsargayuktaṁ na vimuñcati dhruvaṁ
vikṣepaśaktiḥ kṣapayatyajasram॥ 115॥
115. Absence of the right judgment, or contrary judgment, want of definite belief and doubt – these certainly never desert one who has any connection with this veiling power, and then the projecting power gives ceaseless trouble.
etaiḥ prayukto nahi vetti kiṁcin
nidrāluvatstambhavadeva tiṣṭhati॥ 116॥
116. Ignorance, lassitude, dullness, sleep, inadvertence, stupidity, etc., are attributes of Tamas. One tied to these does not comprehend anything, but remains like one asleep or like a stock or stone.
sattvaṁ viśuddhaṁ jalavattathāpi
tābhyāṁ militvā saraṇāya kalpate।
yatrātmabimbaḥ pratibimbitaḥ san
prakāśayatyarka ivākhilaṁ jaḍam॥ 117॥
117. Pure Sattva is (clear) like water, yet in conjunction with Rajas and Tamas it makes for transmigration. The reality of the Ātman becomes reflected in Sattva and like the sun reveals the entire world of matter.
miśrasya sattvasya bhavanti dharmāḥ
tvamānitādyā niyamā yamādyāḥ।
śraddhā ca bhaktiśca mumukṣatā ca
daivī ca sampattirasannivṛttiḥ॥ 118॥
118. The traits of mixed Sattva are an utter absence of pride etc., and Niyama, Yama, etc., as well as faith, devotion, yearning for Liberation, the divine tendencies and turning away from the unreal.
viśuddhasattvasya guṇāḥ prasādaḥ
svātmānubhūtiḥ paramā praśāntiḥ।
tṛptiḥ praharṣaḥ paramātmaniṣṭhā
yayā sadānandarasaṁ samṛcchati॥ 119॥
119. The traits of pure Sattva are cheerfulness, the realisation of one’s own Self, supreme peace, contentment, bliss, and steady devotion to the Ātman, by which the aspirant enjoys bliss everlasting.
tatkāraṇaṁ nāma śarīramātmanaḥ।
120. This Undifferentiated, spoken of as the compound of the three Guṇas, is the causal body of the soul. Profound sleep is its special state, in which the functions of the mind and all its organs are suspended.
suṣuptiretasya kila pratītiḥ
kiṁcinna vedmīti jagatprasiddheḥ॥ 121॥
121. Profound sleep is the cessation of all kinds of perception, in which the mind remains in a subtle seed-like form. The test of this is the universal verdict, "I did not know anything then".
sarve vikārā viṣayāḥ sukhādayaḥ।
vyomādibhūtānyakhilaṁ na viśvaṁ
avyaktaparyantamidaṁ hyanātmā॥ 122॥
122. The body, organs, Prāṇas, Manas, egoism, etc., all modifications, the sense-objects, pleasure and the rest, the gross elements such as the ether, in fact, the whole universe, up to the Undifferentiated – all this is the non-Self.
māyā māyākāryaṁ sarvaṁ mahadādidehaparyantam।
asadidamanātmatattvaṁ viddhi tvaṁ marumarīcikākalpam॥ 123॥
123. From Mahat down to the gross body everything is the effect of Māyā: These and Māyā itself know thou to be the non-Self, and therefore unreal like the mirage in a desert.
atha te saṁpravakṣyāmi svarūpaṁ paramātmanaḥ।
yadvijñāya naro bandhānmuktaḥ kaivalyamaśnute॥ 124॥
124. Now I am going to tell thee of the real nature of the supreme Self, realising which man is freed from bondage and attains Liberation.
asti kaścitsvayaṁ nityamahaṁpratyayalambanaḥ।
avasthātrayasākṣī saṁpañcakośavilakṣaṇaḥ॥ 125॥
125. There is some Absolute Entity, the eternal substratum of the consciousness of egoism, the witness of the three states, and distinct from the five sheaths or coverings:
yo vijānāti sakalaṁ jāgratsvapnasuṣuptiṣu।
126. Which knows everything that happens in the waking state, in dream and in profound sleep; which is aware of the presence or absence of the mind and its functions; and which is the background of the notion of egoism. – This is That.
yaḥ paśyati svayaṁ sarvaṁ yaṁ na paśyati kaścana।
yaścetayati buddhyādi na tadyaṁ cetayatyayam॥ 127॥
127. Which Itself sees all, but which no one beholds, which illumines the intellect etc., but which they cannot illumine. – This is That.
yena viśvamidaṁ vyāptaṁ yaṁ na vyāpnoti kiṁcana।
abhārūpamidaṁ sarvaṁ yaṁ bhāntyamanubhātyayam॥ 128॥
128. By which this universe is pervaded, but which nothing pervades, which shining, all this (universe) shines as Its reflection. – This is That.
yasya sannidhimātreṇa dehendriyamanodhiyaḥ।
viṣayeṣu svakīyeṣu vartante preritā iva॥ 129॥
129. By whose very presence the body, the organs, mind and intellect keep to their respective spheres of action, like servants!
ahaṅkārādidehāntā viṣayāśca sukhādayaḥ।
vedyante ghaṭavadyena nityabodhasvarūpiṇā॥ 130॥
130. By which everything from egoism down to the body, the sense-objects and pleasure etc., is known as palpably as a jar – for It is the essence of Eternal Knowledge!
eṣo'ntarātmā puruṣaḥ purāṇo
yeneṣitā vāgasavaścaranti॥ 131॥
131. This is the innermost Self, the primeval Purusha (Being), whose essence is the constant realisation of infinite Bliss, which is ever the same, yet reflecting through the different mental modifications, and commanded by which the organs and Prāṇas perform their functions.
atraiva sattvātmani dhīguhāyāṁ
ākāśa uccai ravivatprakāśate
svatejasā viśvamidaṁ prakāśayan॥ 132॥
132. In this very body, in the mind full of Sattva, in the secret chamber of the intellect, in the Akasha known as the Unmanifested, the Ātman, of charming splendour, shines like the sun aloft, manifesting this universe through Its own effulgence.
na ceṣṭate no vikaroti kiṁcana॥ 133॥
133. The Knower of the modifications of mind and egoism, and of the activities of the body, the organs and Prāṇas, apparently taking their forms, like the fire in a ball of iron; It neither acts nor is subject to change in the least.
na jāyate no mriyate na vardhate
na kṣīyate no vikaroti nityaḥ।
na līyate kumbha ivāmbaraṁ svayam॥ 134॥
134. It is neither born nor dies, It neither grows nor decays, nor does It undergo any change, being eternal. It does not cease to exist even when this body is destroyed, like the sky in a jar (after it is broken), for It is independent.
vilasati paramātmā jāgradādiṣvavasthā
svahamahamiti sākṣātsākṣirūpeṇa buddheḥ॥ 135॥
135. The Supreme Self, different from the Prakriti and its modifications, of the essence of Pure Knowledge, and Absolute, directly manifests this entire gross and subtle universe, in the waking and other states, as the substratum of the persistent sense of egoism, and manifests Itself as the Witness of the Buddhi, the determinative faculty.
niyamitamanasāmuṁ tvaṁ svamātmānamātmany
ayamahamiti sākṣādviddhi buddhiprasādāt ।
pratara bhava kṛtārtho brahmarūpeṇa saṁsthaḥ॥ 136॥
136.By means of a regulated mind and the purified intellect (Buddhi), realise directly thy own Self in the body so as to identify thyself with It, cross the boundless ocean of Samsara whose waves are birth and death, and firmly established in Brahman as thy own essence, be blessed.
atrānātmanyahamiti matirbandha eṣo'sya puṁsaḥ
puṣyatyukṣatyavati viṣayaistantubhiḥ kośakṛdvat॥ 137॥
137. Identifying the Self with this non-Self – this is the bondage of man, which is due to his ignorance, and brings in its train the miseries of birth and death. It is through this that one considers this evanescent body as real, and identifying oneself with it, nourishes, bathes, and preserves it by means of (agreeable) sense-objects, by which he becomes bound as the caterpillar by the threads of its cocoon.
atasmiṁstadbuddhiḥ prabhavati vimūḍhasya tamasā
vivekābhāvādvai sphurati bhujage rajjudhiṣaṇā।
tato'narthavrāto nipatati samādāturadhikaḥ
tato yo'sadgrāhaḥ sa hi bhavati bandhaḥ śṛṇu sakhe॥ 138॥
138. One who is overpowered by ignorance mistakes a thing for what it is not; It is the absence of discrimination that causes one to mistake a snake for a rope, and great dangers overtake him when he seizes it through that wrong notion. Hence, listen, my friend, it is the mistaking of transitory things as real that constitutes bondage.
tamomayī rāhurivārkabimbam॥ 139॥
139. This veiling power (Avriti), which preponderates in ignorance, covers the Self, whose glories are infinite and which manifests Itself through the power of knowledge, indivisible, eternal and one without a second – as Rāhu does the orb of the sun.
tirobhūte svātmanyamalataratejovati pumān
anātmānaṁ mohādahamiti śarīraṁ kalayati।
tataḥ kāmakrodhaprabhṛtibhiramuṁ bandhanaguṇaiḥ
paraṁ vikṣepākhyā rajasa uruśaktirvyathayati॥ 140॥
140. When his own Self, endowed with the purest splendour, is hidden from view, a man through ignorance falsely identifies himself with this body, which is the non-Self. And then the great power of rajas called the projecting power sorely afflicts him through the binding fetters of lust, anger, etc.,
dhiyo nānāvasthāṁ svayamabhinayaṁstadguṇatayā।
apāre saṁsare viṣayaviṣapūre jalanidhau
nimajyonmajyāyaṁ bhramati kumatiḥ kutsitagatiḥ॥ 141॥
141. The man of perverted intellect, having his Self-knowledge swallowed up by the shark of utter ignorance, himself imitates the various states of the intellect (Buddhi), as that is Its superimposed attribute, and drifts up and down in this boundless ocean of Samsara which is full of the poison of sense-enjoyment, now sinking, now rising – a miserable fate indeed!
bhānuṁ tirodhāya vijṛmbhate yathā।
tathā tirodhāya vijṛmbhate svayam॥ 142॥
142. As layers of clouds generated by the sun’s rays cover the sun and alone appear (in the sky), so egoism generated by the Self, covers the reality of the Self and appears by itself.
kavalitadinanārthe durdine sāndrameghaiḥ
vyathayati himajhaṁjhāvāyurugro yathaitān।
kṣapayati bahuduḥkhaistīvravikṣepaśaktiḥ॥ 143॥
143. Just as, on a cloudy day, when the sun is swallowed up by dense clouds, violent cold blasts trouble them, so when the Ātman is hidden by intense ignorance, the dreadful Vikṣepa Shakti (projecting power) afflicts the foolish man with numerous griefs.
etābhyāmeva śaktibhyāṁ bandhaḥ puṁsaḥ samāgataḥ।
yābhyāṁ vimohito dehaṁ matvātmānaṁ bhramatyayam॥ 144॥
144. It is from these two powers that man’s bondage has proceeded – beguiled by which he mistakes the body for the Self and wanders (from body to body).
bījaṁ saṁsṛtibhūmijasya tu tamo dehātmadhīraṅkuro
rāgaḥ pallavamambu karma tu vapuḥ skandhoo'savaḥ śākhikāḥ।
agrāṇīndriyasaṁhatiśca viṣayāḥ puṣpāṇi duḥkhaṁ phalaṁ
nānākarmasamudbhavaṁ bahuvidhaṁ bhoktātra jīvaḥ khagaḥ॥ 145॥
145. Of the tree of Samsara ignorance is the seed, the identification with the body is its sprout, attachment its tender leaves, work its water, the body its trunk, the vital forces its branches, the organs its twigs, the sense-objects its flowers, various miseries due to diverse works are its fruits, and the individual soul is the bird on it.
pravāhapātaṁ janayatyamuṣya॥ 146॥
146. This bondage of the non-Self springs from ignorance, is self-caused, and is described as without beginning and end. It subjects one to the long train of miseries such as birth, death, disease and decrepitude.
nāstrairna śastrairanilena vanhinā
chettuṁ na śakyo na ca karmakoṭibhiḥ।
dhātuḥ prasādena śitena mañjunā॥ 147॥
147. This bondage can be destroyed neither by weapons nor by wind, nor by fire, nor by millions of acts – by nothing except the wonderful sword of knowledge that comes of discrimination, sharpened by the grace of the Lord.
tenaiva saṁsārasamūlanāśaḥ॥ 148॥
148. One who is passionately devoted to the authority of the Śrutis acquires steadiness in his Svadharma, which alone conduces to the purity of his mind. The man of pure mind realises the Supreme Self, and by this alone Samsara with its root is destroyed.
kośairannamayādyaiḥ pañcabhirātmā na saṁvṛto bhāti।
nijaśaktisamutpannaiḥ śaivālapaṭalairivāmbu vāpīstham॥ 149॥
149. Covered by the five sheaths – the material one and the rest – which are the products of Its own power, the Self ceases to appear, like the water of a tank by its accumulation of sedge.
tacchaivālāpanaye samyaksalilaṁ pratīyate śuddham।
tṛṣṇāsantāpaharaṁ sadyaḥ saukhyapradaṁ paraṁ puṁsaḥ॥ 150॥
150. On the removal of that sedge the perfectly pure water that allays the pangs of thirst and gives immediate joy, appears unobstructed before the man.