Vivekachudamani: The Crest-Jewel of Discrimination | 51-100
ṛṇamocanakartāraḥ pituḥ santi sutādayaḥ।
bandhamocanakartā tu svasmādanyo na kaścana॥ 51॥
51. A father has got his sons and others to free him from his debts, but he has got none but himself to remove his bondage.
kṣudhādikṛtaduḥkhaṃ tu vinā svena na kenacit॥ 52॥
52. Trouble such as that caused by a load on the head can be removed by others, but none but one’s own self can put a stop to the pain which is caused by hunger and the like.
pathyamauṣadhasevā ca kriyate yena rogiṇā।
ārogyasiddhirdṛṣṭāsya nānyānuṣṭhitakarmaṇā॥ 53॥
53. The patient who takes (the proper) diet and medicine is alone seen to recover completely – not through work done by others.
svenaiva vedyaṃ na tu paṇḍitena।
jñātavyamanyairavagamyate kim॥ 54॥
54. The true nature of things is to be known personally, through the eye of clear illumination, and not through a sage: what the moon exactly is, is to be known with one’s own eyes; can others make him know it?
kaḥ śaknuyādvinātmānaṃ kalpakoṭiśatairapi॥ 55॥
55. Who but one’s own self can get rid of the bondage caused by the fetters of Ignorance, desire, action and the like, aye, even in a hundred crore of cycles?
na yogena na sāṃkhyena karmaṇā no na vidyayā।
brahmātmaikatvabodhena mokṣaḥ sidhyati nānyathā॥ 56॥
56. Neither by Yoga, nor by Sānkhya, nor by work, nor by learning, but by the realisation of one's identity with Brahman is Liberation possible, and by no other means.
vīṇāyā rūpasaundaryaṃ tantrīvādanasauṣṭhavam।
prajārañjjanamātraṃ tanna sāmrājyāya kalpate॥ 57॥
57. The beauty of a guitar’s form and the skill of playing on its chords serve merely to please a few persons; they do not suffice to confer sovereignty.
vāgvaikharī śabdajharī śāstravyākhyānakauśalam।
vaiduṣyaṃ viduṣāṃ tadvadbhuktaye na tu muktaye॥ 58॥
58. Loud speech consisting of a shower of words, the skill in expounding the Scriptures, and likewise erudition - these merely bring on a little personal enjoyment to the scholar, but are no good for Liberation.
avijñāte pare tattve śāstrādhītistu niṣphalā।
vijñāte'pi pare tattve śāstrādhītistu niṣphalā॥ 59॥
59. The study of the Scriptures is useless so long as the highest Truth is unknown, and it is equally useless when the highest Truth has already been known.
śabdajālaṃ mahāraṇyaṃ cittabhramaṇakāraṇam।
ataḥ prayatnājjñātavyaṃ tattvajñaistattvamātmanaḥ॥ 60॥
60. The Scriptures consisting of many words are a dense forest which merely causes the mind to ramble. Hence men of wisdom should earnestly set about knowing the true nature of the Self.
ajñānasarpadaṣṭasya brahmajñānauṣadhaṃ vinā।
kimu vedaiśca śāstraiśca kimu mantraiḥ kimauṣadhaiḥ॥ 61॥
61. For one who has been bitten by the serpent of Ignorance, the only remedy is the knowledge of Brahman. Of what avail are the Vedas and Scriptures, Mantras and medicines to such a one?
na gacchati vinā pānaṃ vyādhirauṣadhaśabdataḥ।
vināparokṣānubhavaṃ brahmaśabdairna mucyate॥ 62॥
62. A disease does not leave off if one simply utter the name of the medicine, without taking it; (similarly) without direct realisation one cannot be liberated by the mere utterance of the word Brahman.
akṛtvā dṛśyavilayamajñātvā tattvamātmanaḥ।
brahmaśabdaiḥ kuto muktiruktimātraphalairnṛṇām॥ 63॥
63. Without causing the objective universe to vanish and without knowing the truth of the Self, how is one to achieve Liberation by the mere utterance of the word Brahman? -- It would result merely in an effort of speech.
rājāhamiti śabdānno rājā bhavitumarhati॥ 64॥
64. Without killing one’s enemies, and possessing oneself of the splendour of the entire surrounding region, one cannot claim to be an emperor by merely saying, ‘I am an emperor’.
āptoktiṃ khananaṃ tathopariśilādyutkarṣaṇaṃ svīkṛtiṃ
nikṣepaḥ samapekṣate nahi bahiḥ śabdaistu nirgacchati।
māyākāryatirohitaṃ svamamalaṃ tattvaṃ na duryuktibhiḥ॥ 65॥
65. As a treasure hidden underground requires (for its extraction) competent instruction, excavation, the removal of stones and other such things lying above it and (finally) grasping, but never comes out by being (merely) called out by name, so the transparent Truth of the self, which is hidden by Maya and its effects, is to be attained through the instructions of a knower of Brahman, followed by reflection, meditation and so forth, but not through perverted arguments.
svaireva yatnaḥ kartavyo rogādāviva paṇḍitaiḥ॥ 66॥
66. Therefore the wise should, as in the case of disease and the like, personally strive by all the means in their power to be free from the bondage of repeated births and deaths.
yastvayādya kṛtaḥ praśno varīyāñjchāstravinmataḥ।
sūtraprāyo nigūḍhārtho jñātavyaśca mumukṣubhiḥ॥ 67॥
67. The question that thou hast asked today is excellent, approved by those versed in the Śastras, aphoristic, pregnant with meaning and fit to be known by the seekers after Liberation.
śṛṇuṣvāvahito vidvanyanmayā samudīryate।
tadetacchravaṇātsadyo bhavabandhādvimokṣyase॥ 68॥
68. Listen attentively, O learned one, to what I am going to say. By listening to it thou shalt be instantly free from the bondage of Samsāra.
mokṣasya hetuḥ prathamo nigadyate
tataḥ śamaścāpi damastitikṣā
nyāsaḥ prasaktākhilakarmaṇāṃ bhṛśam॥ 69॥
69. The first step to Liberation is the extreme aversion to all perishable things, then follow calmness, self-control, forbearance, and the utter relinquishment of all work enjoined in the Scriptures.
tataḥ śrutistanmananaṃ satattva
dhyānaṃ ciraṃ nityanirantaraṃ muneḥ।
tato'vikalpaṃ parametya vidvān
ihaiva nirvāṇasukhaṃ samṛcchati॥ 70॥
70. Then come hearing, reflection on that, and long, constant and unbroken meditation on the Truth for the Muni. After that the learned seeker attains the supreme Nirvikalpa state and realises the bliss of Nirvana even in this life.
taducyate mayā samyakśrutvātmanyavadhāraya॥ 71॥
71. Now I am going to tell thee fully about what you ought to know – the discrimination between the Self and the non-Self. Listen to it and decide about it in your mind.
72. Composed of the seven ingredients, viz. marrow, bones, fat, flesh, blood, skin and cuticle, and consisting of the following limbs and their parts – legs, thighs, the chest, arms, the back and the head:
mohāspadaṃ sthūlamitīryate budhaiḥ।
sūkṣmāṇi bhūtāni bhavanti tāni॥ 73॥
73. This body, reputed to be the abode of the delusion of ‘I and mine’, is designated by sages as the gross body. The sky, air, fire, water and earth are subtle elements. They –
sthūlāni ca sthūlaśarīrahetavaḥ।
mātrāstadīyā viṣayā bhavanti
śabdādayaḥ pañca sukhāya bhoktuḥ॥ 74॥
74. Being united with parts of one another and becoming gross, (they) form the gross body. And their subtle essences form sense-objects – the group of five such as sound, which conduce to the happiness of the experiencer, the individual soul.
ya eṣu mūḍhā viṣayeṣu baddhā
āyānti niryāntyadha ūrdhvamuccaiḥ
svakarmadūtena javena nītāḥ॥ 75॥
75. Those fools who are tied to these sense-objects by the stout cord of attachment, so very difficult to snap, come and depart, up and down, carried amain by the powerful emissary of their past action.
śabdādibhiḥ pañcabhireva pañca
pañcatvamāpuḥ svaguṇena baddhāḥ।
bhṛṅgā naraḥ pañcabhirañcitaḥ kim॥ 76॥
76. The deer, the elephant, the moth, the fish and the black-bee – these five have died, being tied to one or other of the five senses, viz. sound etc., through their own attachment. What then is in store for man who is attached to all these five.
doṣeṇa tīvro viṣayaḥ kṛṣṇasarpaviṣādapi।
viṣaṃ nihanti bhoktāraṃ draṣṭāraṃ cakṣuṣāpyayam॥ 77॥
77. Sense-objects are even more virulent in their evil effects than the poison of the cobra. Poison kills one who takes it, but those others kill one who even looks at them through the eyes.
viṣayāśāmahāpāśādyo vimuktaḥ sudustyajāt ।
sa eva kalpate muktyai nānyaḥ ṣaṭśāstravedyapi॥ 78॥
78. He who is free from the terrible fetters of the hankering for the sense-objects, so very difficult to get rid of, is alone fit for Liberation, and none else – even though he be versed in all the six Śastras.
nigṛhya kaṇṭhe vinivartya vegāt॥ 79॥
79. Those seekers after liberation who have got only an apparent dispassion (Vairāgya) and are trying to cross the ocean of Samsāra (relative existence), the shark of hankering catches by the throat and violently snatching away drowns them half-way.
viṣayākhyagraho yena suviraktyasinā hataḥ।
sa gacchati bhavāmbhodheḥ pāraṃ pratyūhavarjitaḥ॥ 80॥
80. He who has killed the shark known as sense-object with the sword of mature dispassion, crosses the ocean of Samsara, free from all obstacles.
pratipadamabhiyāto mṛtyurapyeṣa viddhi।
hitasujanaguruktyā gacchataḥ svasya yuktyā
prabhavati phalasiddhiḥ satyamityeva viddhi॥ 81॥
81. Know that death quickly overtakes the stupid man who walks along the dreadful ways of sense-pleasure; whereas one who walks in accordance with the instructions of a well-wishing and worthy Guru, as also with his own reasoning, achieves his end – know this to be true.
mokṣasya kāṃkṣā yadi vai tavāsti
praśāntidāntīrbhaja nityamādarāt॥ 82॥
82. If indeed thou hast a craving for Liberation, shun sense-objects from a good distance as thou wouldst do poison, and always cultivate carefully the nectar-like virtues of contentment, compassion, forgiveness, straight-forwardness, calmness and self-control.
anukṣaṇaṃ yatparihṛtya kṛtyaṃ
dehaḥ parārtho'yamamuṣya poṣaṇe
yaḥ sajjate sa svamanena hanti॥ 83॥
83. Whoever leaves aside what should always be attempted, viz. emancipation from the bondage of Ignorance without beginning, and passionately seeks to nourish this body, which is an object for others to enjoy, commits suicide thereby.
śarīrapoṣaṇārthī san ya ātmānaṃ didṛkṣati।
grāhaṃ dārudhiyā dhṛtvā nadi tartuṃ sa gacchati॥ 84॥
84. Whoever seeks to realise the Self by devoting himself to the nourishment of the body, proceeds to cross a river by catching hold of a crocodile, mistaking it for a log.
moha eva mahāmṛtyurmumukṣorvapurādiṣu।
moho vinirjito yena sa muktipadamarhati॥ 85॥
85. So for a seeker after Liberation the infatuation over things like the body is a dire death. He who has thoroughly conquered this deserves the state of Freedom.
mohaṃ jahi mahāmṛtyuṃ dehadārasutādiṣu।
yaṃ jitvā munayo yānti tadviṣṇoḥ paramaṃ padam॥ 86॥
86. Conquer the dire death of infatuation over thy body, wife, children etc., -- conquering which the sages reaches that Supreme State of Vishnu.
pūrṇaṃ mūtrapurīṣābhyāṃ sthūlaṃ nindyamidaṃ vapuḥ॥ 87॥
87. This gross body is to be deprecated, for it consists of the skin, flesh, blood, arteries and veins, fat, marrow and bones, and is full of other offensive things.
pañcīkṛtebhyo bhūtebhyaḥ sthūlebhyaḥ pūrvakarmaṇā।
samutpannamidaṃ sthūlaṃ bhogāyatanamātmanaḥ
avasthā jāgarastasya sthūlārthānubhavo yataḥ॥ 88॥
88. The gross body is produced by one’s past actions out of the gross elements formed by the union of the subtle elements with each other, and is the medium of experience for the soul. That is its waking state in which it perceives gross objects.
karoti jīvaḥ svayametadātmanā
tasmātpraśastirvapuṣo'sya jāgare॥ 89॥
89. Identifying itself with this form, the individual soul, though separate, enjoys gross objects, such as garlands and sandal-paste, by means of the external organs. Hence this body has its fullest play in the waking state.
sarvāpi bāhyasaṃsāraḥ puruṣasya yadāśrayaḥ।
viddhi dehamidaṃ sthūlaṃ gṛhavadgṛhamedhinaḥ॥ 90॥
90. Know this gross body to be like a house to the householder, on which rests man’s entire dealing with the external world.
sthūlasya saṃbhavajarāmaraṇāni dharmāḥ
sthaulyādayo bahuvidhāḥ śiśutādyavasthāḥ।
varṇāśramādiniyamā bahudhāmayāḥ syuḥ
pūjāvamānabahumānamukhā viśeṣāḥ॥ 91॥
91. Birth, decay and death are the various characteristics of the gross body, as also stoutness etc., childhood etc., are its different conditions; it has got various restrictions regarding castes and orders of life; it is subject to various diseases, and meets with different kinds of treatment, such as worship, insult and high honours.
buddhīndriyāṇi śravaṇaṃ tvagakṣi
ghrāṇaṃ ca jivhā viṣayāvabodhanāt ।
karmendriyāṇi pravaṇena karmasu॥ 92॥
92. The ears, skin, eyes, nose and tongue are organs of knowledge, for they help us to cognise objects; the vocal organs, hands, legs, etc., are organs of action, owing to their tendency to work.
buddhiḥ padārthādhyavasāyadharmataḥ॥ 93॥
svārthānusandhānaguṇena cittam॥ 94॥
93-94. The inner organ (Antahkaraṇa) is called Manas, Buddhi, ego or Chitta, according to their respective functions: Manas, from its considering the pros and cons of a thing; Buddhi, from its property of determining the truth of objects; the ego, from its identification with this body as one’s own self; and Chitta, from its function of seeking for pleasurable objects.
prāṇāpānavyānodānasamānā bhavatyasau prāṇaḥ।
svayameva vṛttibhedādvikṛtibhedātsuvarṇasalilādivat॥ 95॥
95. One and the same Prāṇa (vital force) becomes Prāṇa, Apāna, Vyāna, Udāna and Samāna according to their diversity of functions and modifications, like gold and water, etc.
vāgādi pañca śravaṇādi pañca
prāṇādi pañcābhramukhāni pañca।
buddhyādyavidyāpi ca kāmakarmaṇī
puryaṣṭakaṃ sūkṣmaśarīramāhuḥ॥ 96॥
96. The five organs of action such as speech etc., the five organs of knowledge beginning with the ear, the group of five Prāṇas, Buddhi and the rest together with Nescience, desire and action – these eight "cities" make up what is called the subtle body.
idaṃ śarīraṃ śṛṇu sūkṣmasaṃjñitaṃ
97. Listen – this subtle body, called also Liṅga body, is produced out of the elements before their subdividing and combining with each other, is possessed of desires and causes the soul to experience the fruits of its actions. It is a beginningless superimposition on the soul brought on by its own ignorance.
svapno bhavatyasya vibhaktyavasthā
svamātraśeṣeṇa vibhāti yatra।
svapne tu buddhiḥ svayameva jāgrat
kartrādibhāvaṃ pratipadya rājate
yatra svayaṃ bhāti hyayaṃ parātmā।
na lipyate tatkṛtakarmaleśaiḥ
yasmādasaṅgastata eva karmabhiḥ
na lipyate kiṃcidupādhinā kṛtaiḥ॥ 99॥
98-99. Dream is a state of the soul distinct from the waking state, where it shines by itself. In dreams Buddhi, by itself, takes on the role of the agent and the like, owing to various desires of the waking state, while the supreme Ātman shines in Its own glory – with Buddhi as Its only superimposition, the witness of everything, and is not touched by the least work that Buddhi does. As It is wholly unattached, It is not touched by any work that Its superimpositions may perform.
sarvavyāpṛtikaraṇaṃ liṅgamidaṃ syāccidātmanaḥ puṃsaḥ।
vāsyādikamiva takṣṇastenaivātmā bhavatyasaṅgo'yam॥ 100॥
100. This subtle body is the instrument for all activities of the Ātman, who is Knowledge Absolute, like the adze and other tools of a carpenter. Therefore this Ātman is perfectly unattached.